(a) Roman Roads →312 BC constructed 580km (length)
(1) They were straight regardless of gradients
(2) Total thickness was (.75 to 1.2) meter
(3) The wearing course consisted of dressed large stone blocks set in lime mortar.
(b) Tresaguet construction (France -1764AD)
(2)Consideration was given to subgrade moisture and drainage of surface water
(3) The top-wearing surface was made up of a smaller slope having a cross slope of 1 in 45 to the surface to provide surface drainage. Shoulder sloping was also provided of the order 1 in 20
(c) Metcalf – construction (1717-1810)
In England, following the recommendation of Robert Philips. He was blind most of his work was not recorded.
(d) Telford construction (19th century starting in England)
(1) Subgrade with 9 meter
(2) Binding layer of wearing course 4 cm thick, with cross-slope 1 in 45
(3) Thickness of foundation stone varied from 17cm at edges to 22cm at center.
(e) Macadam construction (1827, England)
1) 1 st method based on scientific thinking feature
2) First-person suggested that heavy foundation stones are not at all required at the bottom layer.
3) The importance to subgrade drainage and compaction was given so the subgrade was compacted and prepared with Cross slope 1 in 36.
4) Total thickness of the pavement was kept uniform from edge to center was 25cm.
(f) Water Bound Macadam (WBM)
Most famous in many countries like India. Not suitable for fast-moving vehicles. Broken stones of the base course and surface course are bound by stone dust in the presence of moisture.