>> Felling of trees:-
- The process of cutting down or felling down the trees is known as the feeling of trees.
- cutting must be done at an appropriate age when it will achieve sufficient maturity.
- If the over-mature tree being reduced it’d have a big part of decayed wooden i.e. pith and if beneath neath matured tree reduce the then a big percent of sapwood could be present. In each case, we are able to get terrible timber.
- The superior age for the reduction of the tree is 5-one hundred years.
- Cutting ought to be achieved while the sap is at rest.
- Not in autumn or springs due to the fact that season motion of vitamins might be extra.
- Cutting has to be executed in the summertime season in hilly regions and iciness in simple regions.
>>SEASONING OF TIMBER:-
- The process of drying timber up to the optimum level of moisture is termed as seasoning of timber.
- A newly fell timber having almost 50% water by weight hence it cannot be used directly. This water may present either in cell cavities or cell walls and may be either as sap or as moisture. Removing a sap from timber is a difficult task.
- During the drying process, a condition occurs when the entire cavity water is lost but wall water still present this stage is termed as the fiber saturation point.
Significance of seasoning of timber (PROCESSING OF TIMBER):-
- To remove moisture, so that its uniform burning can be done.
- To increase its workability and resistance against deforming agencies like insects, fungi, etc.
- To reduce its weight so that transportation costs can be optimized.
- Removing moisture prevents warping and twisting during burning. Hence, helps in maintaining uniform shape and size.
- It also permits decorative treatments over it.
Two main types of timber seasoning are as under-
- Natural seasoning:- it is a very time-consuming process usually takes 2 to 4 years to make timber fit for the
work. In this method seasoning is carried out by natural air hence it is sometimes referred to as Air seasoning. This method is cheap and simple. But natural factors are really difficult to control. Hence, this became obsolete nowadays.
2. Artificial seasoning:-
I. ELECTRICAL SEASONING:- In the method of electrical seasoning timber is subjected to high-frequency alternate currents. The resistance of wood towards strength is measured at each c programming language of time. When the desired resistance is reached seasoning procedure is stopped due to the fact the resistance of wood will increase through decreasing moisture content material in it. It is likewise known as a speedy seasoning and it’s far uneconomical.
II. CHEMICAL SEASONING:- In this timber is immersed into the solution of soluble salts such as zinc chloride and mercury chloride which increases the rate of evaporation. In this method evaporation in the heart, wood is comparatively more than sapwood. Hence sections obtained by this method have a lesser tendency against cracking.
III. WATER SEASONING:- water seasoning is the process in which timber is immersed in water flow which helps to remove the sap present in the timber. It will take 2-4 weeks of time and after that timber is allowed to dry. Timber section should be placed such that a larger portion faces upstream and shorter portion faces downstream. Section obtained by this process has a lesser tendency against twisting and warping (due to removal of sap) but is observed to lose its strength.
IV. SEASONING BY BOILING:- Seasoning of wooden is likewise done through boiling it in water for 3-four hours. After boiling wooden is permitted to drying naturally. For a big amount of wooden boiling is tough so, every now and then warm steam is handed via the wooden logs withinside the enclosed room.it additionally offers the right results. Timber received through this technique is determined to lose its elasticity and strength.
V. KILN SEASONING:- in this method timber is subjected to hot air in the airtight chamber. The warm air circulates in among the wooden logs and decreases the moisture content material. The temperature within the chamber is raised with the assist of heating coils. When the desired temperature is received moisture content material and relative humidity receive decreased and wooden receives seasoned. despite the fact that It is a luxurious process, it’ll deliver correct effects strength-wise.