Types of Mortar

Types of Mortar

Mortar is made by mixing a binder (cement or lime) with fine aggregate (sand, surkhi, etc.) with water. There are so many types of mortar are used for construction purposes. According to the materials used to make the mortar mix, the mortar could be classified as follows.

  1. Cement Mortar
  2. Lime Mortar
  3. Gauged Mortar
  4. Surkhi Mortar
  5. Mud Mortar
  6. Fire Resistant Mortar
  7. Chemical Resistant Mortar
  8. Sound Absorbing Mortar
  9. Lightweight Mortar
  10. Finishing Mortar

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1. Cement Mortar

cement mortar

Cement mortar is a type of mortar that uses cement as a binder and sand as a fine aggregate. Depending on the desired strength, the cement-to-sand ratio of the cement mortar varies from 1:2 to 1:6. In this type of mortar, binders and sand are used as aggregates. The ratio of cement and sand is determined based on the specified durability and working conditions. The cement mortar offers high strength and water resistance.

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2. Lime Mortar

Lime Mortar

Lime mortar is a type of mortar in which lime (fatty lime or hydraulic lime) is used as a binder and sand is used as a fine aggregate. In this case, lime is used as a binder. There are two types of files, namely fat lime, and hydraulic lime. The lime in the lime mortar requires 2 to 3 times the amount of sand and is used for dry work. and sand in a ratio of 1: 2 gives good results in wet conditions and is also suitable for flooded areas. Finally, the lime mortar has high plasticity, so it can be easily placed. The pyramids of Giza are plastered with lime mortar.

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3. Gauged Mortar

Gauged Mortar

In gauge mortar, a combination of lime and cement is used as a binding material, and sand as a fine aggregate. The Gauge mortar is basically a lime mortar that increases its resistance by adding cement. As a result, the mortar has high lime plasticity and high cement resistance. The ratio of cement to lime ranges from 1:6 to 1:9 and is inexpensive. Gauge mortar is a type of mortar that uses cement and lime as a binder and sand as a binder. fine aggregate. Basically, it is a lime mortar to which cement is added to achieve greater resistance. The process is called Gauging. They are also more durable than lime mortars.

4. Surkhi Mortar

Surkhi Mortar

Surkhi is made by grinding to powder burnt bricks, brick-bats or burnt clay; under-burnt or over-burnt bricks should not be used, nor bricks containing a high proportion of sand but Surkhi for plaster may be made from slightly under-burnt bricks, and ground very fine; this will improve the hydraulicity of fat lime (Hydraulicity is the property of a binder to harden in contact with water.)

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5. Mud Mortar

Mud Mortar

Mud mortar is a type of mortar that uses mud as a binder and sawdust, rice hulls, or cow dung as a fine aggregate; Sludge mortar is useful when lime or cement is not available; This type of mortar uses mud as a binder and sawdust, rice hulls or cow dung as a fine aggregate. Clay mortar makes sense where lime or cement is not available. The use of clay mortars in the Middle East and Central Asia, as well as American cultures in the southwestern United States, is well documented.

6. Fire-Resistant Mortar

Fire Resistant Mortar

The fire-retardant mortar is made by mixing aluminous cement with the fine powder of the refractory bricks. In the event of fire warnings in the structures of a certain area, fire retardant mortar is used as fire-retardant protection. -The permanent mortar is a powder made from cement and special additives. This filler compound is intended for cable ducts. This product is guaranteed to be free from asbestos, halogens, phenol, silica, or silica fumes. Its powder apparent density is 0.9 and its wet density is 1. The actual mixing time is 1 to 3 hours, depending on the ambient humidity, and the final application time is 4 hours, depending on the conditions.

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7. Chemical Resistant Mortar

Chemical Resistant Mortar

It is generally used when there is a possibility of a chemical attack on structures. There are many types of chemical-resistant mortars that can be made. However, the choice of grout depends on the damage that is expected from a particular chemical or group of chemicals. It doesn’t withstand all chemical attacks. For example, chemical silicate-type mortar resists nitric, chromium, sulfur, or acid damage, but cannot prevent the structure from being damaged by alkali of any concentration.

8. Sound Absorbing Mortar

Sound Absorbing Mortar

In a sound-absorbing mortar, cement, lime, gypsum, or slag as a binder and pumice stone, ash as fine aggregates. It is used to reduce the noise level and acts as a sound-absorbing layer.

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9. Lightweight Mortar

Lightweight Mortar

If the mortar has a bulk density of less than 15 KN / m3, it is called a light mortar. Light mortar is made by mixing lime or cement as a binding agent, sand and sawdust, rice hulls, jute fibers, coirs, or fibers. of asbestos. Ash mortar is a variety of light mortars Light mortar is usually used in sound and heat-resistant construction Strength-based (ASTM C 270)

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10. Finishing Mortar

Finishing Mortar

The finishing mortar is used for anchoring and plastering. It is also used for the architectural effects of buildings to create an aesthetic appearance. The mortar used for decorative finishing must have high resistance, mobility, and resistance to atmospheric influences such as rain, wind, etc.

Types of Mortar

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